Investment Casting Process

An Introduction to Investment Casting for Engineering Machinery Parts

Due to its capacity to produce components with intricate designs, fantastic accuracy, and outstanding surface finishes, investment casting is an exceptional manufacturing technology for engineering machinery parts. This is because of its ability to cast the details in a single mould. This procedure is invaluable in sectors of the economy that place a premium on high precision and long-term durability in the machine parts they use. It ensures that the elements perform faultlessly even when subjected to harsh conditions and long periods. By utilizing investment casting, producers can attain a level of consistency and quality that has never been seen before in the production of components essential to the efficient operation of engineering gear.

Required Accuracy in Engineering Machinery Components

The precision of each individual component is of the utmost importance in the field of engineering machinery. Because of the harsh conditions that these machines are frequently exposed to, such as tremendous pressure, high temperatures, and corrosive environments, each component must carry out its role perfectly. Investment casting meets this demand by producing parts with extraordinary accuracy. This ensures that the pieces will fit flawlessly and perform their intended functions, reducing the likelihood of equipment failure and subsequent downtime. Because of this precision, the machinery will last longer, ultimately resulting in cost savings and improved productivity.

Investment Casting Materials for Engineering Equipment

One of the most notable qualities of investment casting is its adaptability in terms of the materials that can be used. This method can work with a wide variety of metals to produce parts for engineering machinery. These metals include various grades of steel, aluminium, brass, and others. Each material possesses unique qualities that can be utilised in multiple ways to satisfy different operational requirements successfully. For example, stainless steel is well-known for its strength and resistance to corrosion, making it an excellent material choice for components subjected to extreme circumstances. Manufacturers may ensure that the finished product possesses the necessary properties for optimal performance and longevity by carefully selecting the suitable material. This allows the manufacturers to ensure that the final product has those essential attributes.

Investment Casting Makes Engineering Machinery Parts

  • The Creation of the Wax Pattern

This first phase is critical since it lays the groundwork for the rest of the process. Wax is used to create an exact reproduction of the finished part, with meticulous attention to detail of the utmost importance. This wax design incorporates all of the nuances and complexity of the finished product, assuring that the cast component will conform to the precise requirements that have been laid down.

  • The Development of the Ceramic Shell

After that, the wax pattern is covered in a ceramic slurry, which will transform into a sturdy shell after it has had time to harden. This shell’s role primarily determines the finished product’s surface smoothness and dimensional precision.

  • The Removal of Wax

After the shell has been formed, the wax is painstakingly removed by melting it away, leaving a hollow ceramic mould in its place. This phase requires high accuracy to guarantee that the mould will continue to function correctly for the succeeding steps.

  • Pouring of Metals

After the wax has been melted, the hollow left by it is filled with molten metal delicately poured into the ceramic mould. After being allowed to cool and solidify, the metal will take on the shape of the wax pattern that was used initially.

  • The Removal of the Shell

After the metal has completely hardened, the ceramic shell will be removed, making the cast section visible. This step demands extreme precision to ensure that the component is not harmed in any way throughout the process of shell removal.

  • Processes of Final Completion

The cast item must undergo several finishing procedures to obtain the final specs, such as machining, heat treating, and surface finishing. These steps are essential to guarantee that the component will work appropriately in the application for which it was designed.

For thousands of years, investment casting has been a successful method for producing near-net shape goods in various forms. While there have been significant advancements and modifications in recent years due to the advent of new materials and manufacturing techniques, the procedures involved in the investment casting process have mainly not altered.

When the flask is prepared with skill and care, the investment casting process produces exceptionally accurate replicas of the pattern. How away is manufactured considerably impacts how accurate it is. The accuracy of the wax pattern can be increased by employing various methods. For instance, if the design is molded inside a tool, the wax injection pressure can be changed to accommodate modest dimensional mistakes. High-precision parts of the way can also be “coined” (press molded in two parts with an exact steel cavity) or post-machined.

Generally speaking, the eight steps below can be used to summarize investment casting, commonly referred to as lost wax casting.

Master pattern creation

Depending on the needs of the finished product, a sculptor or specialised mold maker will build a master design out of wax, clay, wood, steel, or plastic. These are called “master patterns” because they have two shrinkage allowances—one for wax and the other for casting material shrinkage. A wooden master pattern and its casting are depicted in the Figure below.

These molds are expensive because, depending on the size, shape, and material used, it could require some trial and error to obtain the proper size and form.

Investment Casting Process Videos

Understanding the Investment Casting Process

  • Pattern Creation: Develop a wax/plastic model mimicking the final part.

  • Ceramic Shell Formation: Apply layers to create a ceramic shell around the pattern.

  • De-waxing and Preheating: Eliminate the pattern, preheat the ceramic shell.

  • Metal Pouring: Introduce molten metal into the preheated shell.

  • Cutting Gates: Trim excess material and remove gating systems.

  • Surface Finishing: Perform machining and polishing for final specifications.

  • Quality Assurance: Conduct thorough checks to ensure the casting meets standards.

Master die / Mould / Mold

A master die, or mold used to manufacture wax patterns, is made to fit the master pattern by casting or machining. Figure shows how advancements in CNC machining technology and tooling have made it feasible to machine a master die from metals such as aluminum and steel without the need for a master pattern.

If the master pattern is made of steel, a metal having a lower melting point than steel can cast the master die directly from the steel master pattern. These days, silicone rubber moulds are also widely utilised since they are easy to use and may be cast straight from a master template. Molds of silicone rubber may tolerate casting temperatures up to 310°C (590°F).

When creating the master pattern and die, shrinkage of the metal cast material, refractory substance, and pattern wax must be taken into account. Adding machining allowances for post-machining on surfaces with tighter tolerances is also a recommended practice. A key element of two-part master dies or molds is the mold alignment locator. To align the two halves and produce exact parts with minimal parting lines or shifts in parting lines, mold locators are necessary.


After that, melted wax is injected or poured into the master die, where it is allowed to solidify to produce the designs. On occasion, a coating of wax is applied to the internal cavity walls of the die to produce a hollow pattern. Until the desired pattern thickness is reached, usually about 3 mm (0.12 in), this coating is repeated. The latter should only be used for necessary components. In addition, appropriate polymers and frozen mercury are sometimes used to make designs.

Modern advancements in rapid prototyping have made it possible to lower costs by creating patterns directly from a CAD file, either as master patterns or wax patterns. 3D printing methods like stereolithography, selective laser sintering (SLS), poly jetting, and fused deposition modeling (FDM) are being utilized to generate designs. Post-processing is frequently necessary to provide a decent surface finish since these rapid prototyping technologies are created using a layering technique.

Generally, there are two types of cores: soluble wax and ceramic. Soluble wax cores dissolve from the patterns during pre-processing, whereas ceramic bodies stay in place and are removed once the metal casting has solidified.

A heated metal tool is used in a technique called “chasing” to eliminate flaws like separating lines and flashings. Release chemicals, including silicone sprays, are also used to help remove patterns and prevent pattern damage.

Pattern assembly

Subsequently, the wax patterns are assembled onto one wax sprue. After the wax has been removed, the sprue serves as a channel for the molten alloy to enter the mold in an investing ring.

Many wax patterns can be linked to a core sprue and runner system using heated tools and melted wax to create a pattern tree or cluster. Depending on the size of the parts, productivity can be boosted by putting up to several hundred designs onto a tree.

Sprue holds the wax pattern in place to avoid deformation during the casting process by creating a channel for the molten material to flow into and out of the mold.

Dipping coating

Next, to create a “prime coat,” or uniform surface coating, the design is dipped into and then emptied out of a slurry of finely crushed refractory material. Very small particle size is deposited during this stage to form a thin but extremely smooth layer of investment material, giving the completed product a smooth surface and intricate details. Very fine silica and other binders, like water, ethyl silicate, and acids, are frequently found in refractory materials.

Following drying the first layer, the design is continuously dipped and coated to strengthen it by increasing its thickness. To increase the thickness and strength of the wet surface, sand or another refractory aggregate is poured over it during the second step of the dipping process, known as “stuccoing.” The thickness ranges from 5 to 15 mm [0.2 to 0.6 in.”].

Occasionally, an alternate method involves turning the single-dipped pattern cluster inside out in a permeable flask and surrounding it with liquid investment material. The flask is then shaken to remove any trapped air and make sure the investment material covers the whole surface of the mould tree.

After that, it can dry entirely, which may take 16 to 48 hours. Reducing the humidity in the surrounding air or using a vacuum helps hasten the drying process.

De-waxing and firing

After the refractory material mold has completed drying and curing, it is placed upside-down in an oven or other specific de-waxing autoclave to allow the wax to melt and exhaust itself, vaporizing any remaining material. In the investment casting process, removing the pattern wax from the mold is a crucial step that, if done poorly, will lower batch yield. Another major cause of shell cracking is de-waxing. The most frequent casting flaw in investing is shell cracking.

There are two primary techniques for dewaxing: autoclave (steam) or flash fire. Steam autoclaves are the best option because they heat uniformly and put less strain on the material.

The mold is heated to 90 to 175 degrees Celsius and left upside down for a few hours, perhaps four to twelve hours, to allow the wax to melt and run out. Typically, pattern wax is collected and repurposed. The water of crystallisation is then driven off, and the temperature is kept high (650°C-1095°C) for some time (3-6 hours) to burn any remaining wax. The metal-cast substance determines both the duration and the temperatures.

Most shell failures occur during the dewaxing process because the waxes used have a higher thermal expansion coefficient than the refractory material. Since wax expands more than the investment material, the mold may stress fracture if it is used. To mitigate this effect, rapid heating of the wax will cause the outer layer to melt sooner, allowing the remaining wax to expand without putting excessive strain on the mold.  Autoclaves are also utilized to reduce this effect because their heating cycles may be more consistent and precisely regulated.

Preheat & Casting

The mold is then heated to prepare it for pouring. Preheating enables the metal to remain molten for a more extended period, improving its ability to fill all mold details and raising dimensional accuracy. After the mold has cooled, any imperfections can be corrected with ceramic slurry or specialty cement. When the mold is heated, the metal and the mold both shrink at the same rate during the cooling process, allowing for more precise dimensional control.

After being poured into the hollow mold, molten metal up to 3000°C is allowed to cool. Although gravity running is the easiest, there are several ways to make sure the mold is filled. Centrifugal casting, tilt casting, vacuum casting, or positive air pressure casting may help mold filling when intricate, thin parts are involved.

Knockout & post-processing

Following the solidification of the metal, the mould is broken, and the metal casting is removed using methods such as high-pressure water jetting, mechanical chipping, vibrating, hammering, and media blasting.

Next, extra metal is removed by cutting away at each casting individually. In most situations, the sprue is removed and reused. After that, the part is post-processed—for example, by post-machining, heat treating, surface treating, painting, or other methods—according to the specifications for the finished product.

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